Cross-platform, realtime MIDI processing in Rust

You can find some examples in the examples directory

midir

.

Features

midir is inspired by RtMidi and supports the same features*, including virtual ports (except on Windows) and full SysEx support – but with a rust-y API!

* With the exception of message queues, but these can be implemented on top of callbacks using e.g. Rust's channels.

midir currently supports the following platforms/backends:

  • ALSA (Linux)
  • WinMM (Windows)
  • CoreMIDI (macOS, iOS (untested))
  • WinRT (Windows 8+), enable the winrt feature
  • Jack (Linux, macOS), enable the jack feature
  • Web MIDI (Chrome, Opera, perhaps others browsers)

A higher-level API for parsing and assembling MIDI messages might be added in the future.

Documentation & Example

API docs can be found at docs.rs. You can find some examples in the examples directory. Or simply run cargo run --example test_play after cloning this repository.

Issues

Collection of the latest Issues

LarsMS97

LarsMS97

0

example/test_sysex.rs crashes with the following cl output:

Creating virtual input port ...
Connecting to port 'My Test Input:midir-test 130:0' ...
Starting to send messages ...
Sending NoteOn message
519: [144, 60, 1] (len = 3)
Sending small SysEx message ...
200655: [240, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 247] (len = 12)
Sending large SysEx message ...
401283: [240, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 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Sending large SysEx message (chunked)...
Error: ALSA encoder reported invalid data

I skimmed the code briefly and found a note about ALSA not needing to chunk sysex data larger than 256 bytes any more here, a bit lower in the TODO block (line 643). Could that be related?

MikHulk

MikHulk

3

Hi,

I don't understand why this function takes self ownership. This prevents to reuse MidiInput instance. Moreover I have noticed that MidiInput::new raises an InitError when the same name is reused for the connection. Is there a way to reuse a MidiInput instance ?

sourcebox

sourcebox

10

I'm working on an editor for a hardware synthesizer connected via USB MIDI. Ideally, the device is connected all the time so the application finds it right from the start. In reality, a more mature approach is required, meaning that the synth can be connected or disconnected at any time the editor is running.

My question is here, what is the best way to achieve this? Of course, something has to run periodically in the background and scan the ports, since change notification is not supported yet. Should this be done in a separate thread or just called from the main thread at an interval?

As soon as the port becomes available, a connect must be performed. It seems, that the connect() method takes the ownership, so the scanner object loses it. Either some cloning is required or the scanner object needs to be instanciated newly on each iteration. What is the preferred way here?

Boddlnagg

Boddlnagg

bug
0

As identified in https://github.com/Boddlnagg/midir/issues/35#issuecomment-775381492, the implementation of port_name currently does not behave according to the documentation with regard to an error being returned when the port is no longer available:

An error will be returned when the port is no longer valid (e.g. the respective device has been disconnected).

We currently don't detect that situation, because we simply return the stored port name. An additional check needs to be added.

Woyten

Woyten

1

Reproduction on Linux:

  1. MIDI device is connected physically via USB
  2. Some keys are pressed (MIDI events are sent)
  3. midir starts listening

Result:

  • midir receives the events that were sent before listening started (in a burst)
  • midir does not receive any new events

In practice, this means, whenever the reception of events fails I have to:

  1. Stop my midir application
  2. Physically disconnect the MIDI device
  3. Physically reconnect the MIDI device
  4. Restart my midir application

It haven't checked whether physically disconnecting/reconnecting can be achieved in software but in any case this problem, unfortunately, is very annoying and poses a problem for real-world user applications.

rryan

rryan

help wanted
4

On macOS (CoreMIDI), I'm finding that I can't "hotplug" MIDI devices. When I create a MidiInput/MidiOutput and iterate the available ports, devices that I've plugged in since the program started are not available (even when I create a new MidiInput/MidiOutput after the device was plugged in).

Is this working as intended? Any chance this feature is on the roadmap?

Boddlnagg

Boddlnagg

1

I'm not sure how easy that would be, and if it would give us any advantage. But if someone wants to try it, feel free! However, it's important that we keep the platform/configuration matrix that we currently have on Azure Pipelines:

For PR builds:

  • Linux (default: ALSA)
  • Linux (Jack)
  • WASM (currently built on Linux)
  • Windows (default: WinMM)
  • Windows (WinRT)
  • Windows/GNU (default: WinMM)
  • Windows/GNU (WinRT)
  • macOS (default: CoreMIDI)
  • macOS (Jack)

For the master branch we additionally build everything with the beta and nightly toolchains (PR builds are only run on the most recent stable Rust version).

Boddlnagg

Boddlnagg

4

... whatever that means. This is currently just a meta issue to collect information and ideas.

hughrawlinson

hughrawlinson

4

Hi! I'm having a hard time using midir in a threaded context. I'm using threads to model polyphony, as is typical in many synth implementations I've seen. I specifically don't know what is safe to share using Arc/Mutex. If nothing, I'm not sure how to be confident that I spin up a connection to the same port on a new thread. It looks like I can't share MidiOutputPorts between different instances of MidiOutput.

Or is it better to not use threading at all, and just keep a single thread, and handle scheduling of events?

Thanks for any insight!

kangalioo

kangalioo

2

Hi, you've said that the callbacks passed to MiniInput::connect "will never be called concurrently with itself". Now I'm wondering; what happens when the callback takes, say, two seconds to complete? What happens with midi messages arriving in those 2 seconds?

Those midi messages can't be processed right away because the callback is busy, so I could imagine several things:

  • they get discarded
  • they get queued, and will be processed when the callback finishes
    • how long is the queue? What's the limit where messages will start to get dropped?
  • or something else entirely (panic?)
atoav

atoav

help wanted
2

I am not sure if this is a bug or just my own fault, but I can't crosscompile for a raspberry pi when midir is a dependency (it works just fine if I comment it out in Cargo.toml).

The problem seems to happen at the linker stage (warning, really long!):

error: linking with `arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc` failed: exit code: 1
  |
  = note: "arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc" "-Wl,--as-needed" "-Wl,-z,noexecstack" "-L" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib" "/home/d0/Coding/work/midi_to_trigger/target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/debug/deps/midi_to_trigger-8e6e7ed081b07421.25syr1jzb3exvk4y.rcgu.o" "/home/d0/Coding/work/midi_to_trigger/target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/debug/deps/midi_to_trigger-8e6e7ed081b07421.2hfogt1f3dulz1n8.rcgu.o" "/home/d0/Coding/work/midi_to_trigger/target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/debug/deps/midi_to_trigger-8e6e7ed081b07421.2kwzfdj7r6e7gc1x.rcgu.o" "/home/d0/Coding/work/midi_to_trigger/target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/debug/deps/midi_to_trigger-8e6e7ed081b07421.3lwv1peyt9qjersl.rcgu.o" "/home/d0/Coding/work/midi_to_trigger/target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/debug/deps/midi_to_trigger-8e6e7ed081b07421.4z41z2gtkawr4vib.rcgu.o" "/home/d0/Coding/work/midi_to_trigger/target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/debug/deps/midi_to_trigger-8e6e7ed081b07421.8nly3lsfi38ubgi.rcgu.o" "-o" "/home/d0/Coding/work/midi_to_trigger/target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/debug/deps/midi_to_trigger-8e6e7ed081b07421" "/home/d0/Coding/work/midi_to_trigger/target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/debug/deps/midi_to_trigger-8e6e7ed081b07421.17xjcw3dr7n7ptsr.rcgu.o" "-Wl,--gc-sections" "-pie" "-Wl,-zrelro" "-Wl,-znow" "-nodefaultlibs" "-L" "/home/d0/Coding/work/midi_to_trigger/target/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/debug/deps" "-L" "/home/d0/Coding/work/midi_to_trigger/target/debug/deps" "-L" "/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu" "-L" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib" "-Wl,--start-group" "-Wl,-Bstatic" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib/libstd-95f5053e3555b465.rlib" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib/libpanic_unwind-625d9a5dfe06f142.rlib" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib/libhashbrown-4bdaee786b6ecc2f.rlib" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib/librustc_std_workspace_alloc-4896b2c7440385ff.rlib" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib/libbacktrace-359913043371f425.rlib" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib/libbacktrace_sys-3189fe54f33ba5a6.rlib" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib/librustc_demangle-278e49f56bc4aa04.rlib" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib/libunwind-932bef4eba16b4ec.rlib" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib/libcfg_if-d2a28b76ca5161ed.rlib" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib/liblibc-0bb253fb21b3c0c3.rlib" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib/liballoc-933869c77bd04128.rlib" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib/librustc_std_workspace_core-9b29881a4cdf4184.rlib" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib/libcore-a7e5328f57a93d46.rlib" "-Wl,--end-group" "/home/d0/.rustup/toolchains/stable-x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/lib/rustlib/arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf/lib/libcompiler_builtins-ce2041e567e5f109.rlib" "-Wl,-Bdynamic" "-ldl" "-lrt" "-lpthread" "-lgcc_s" "-lc" "-lm" "-lrt" "-lpthread" "-lutil" "-lutil"
  = note: /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl.so: file not recognized: File format not recognized
          collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status

I managed to compile the same thing directly on the target hardware, but it takes forever and speeding it up would be really convinient. Any ideas?

Deewiant

Deewiant

5

I was trying to use https://github.com/dtolnay/anyhow with midir's errors and ran into this rather quickly: The ConnectError<MidiInput> and ConnectError<MidiOutput> types don't implement Sync (at least with ALSA), which makes them incompatible with e.g. anyhow's Error trait.

This can be demonstrated by tweaking the tests in this silly way:

diff --git tests/virtual.rs tests/virtual.rs
index 5ac5754..4dbc2ef 100644
--- tests/virtual.rs
+++ tests/virtual.rs
@@ -8,6 +8,8 @@ use std::time::Duration;
 use midir::{MidiInput, MidiOutput, Ignore, MidiOutputPort};
 use midir::os::unix::{VirtualInput, VirtualOutput};
 
+fn is_sync<T: Sync>(t: T) -> ! { panic!() }
+
 #[test]
 fn end_to_end() {
     let mut midi_in = MidiInput::new("My Test Input").unwrap();
@@ -26,7 +28,7 @@ fn end_to_end() {
     let new_port: MidiOutputPort = midi_out.ports().into_iter().rev().next().unwrap();
 
     println!("Connecting to port '{}' ...", midi_out.port_name(&new_port).unwrap());
-    let mut conn_out = midi_out.connect(&new_port, "midir-test").unwrap();
+    let mut conn_out = match midi_out.connect(&new_port, "midir-test") { Ok(c) => c, Err(e) => is_sync(e) };
     println!("Starting to send messages ...");
     conn_out.send(&[144, 60, 1]).unwrap();
     sleep(Duration::from_millis(200));

cargo test then complains:

error[E0277]: `*mut alsa_sys::snd_seq_t` cannot be shared between threads safely
  --> tests/virtual.rs:31:96
   |
11 | fn is_sync<T: Sync>(t: T) -> ! { panic!() }
   |    -------    ---- required by this bound in `is_sync`
...
31 |     let mut conn_out = match midi_out.connect(&new_port, "midir-test") { Ok(c) => c, Err(e) => is_sync(e) };
   |                                                                                                ^^^^^^^ `*mut alsa_sys::snd_seq_t` cannot be shared between threads safely
   |
   = help: within `midir::ConnectError<midir::MidiOutput>`, the trait `std::marker::Sync` is not implemented for `*mut alsa_sys::snd_seq_t`
   = note: required because it appears within the type `alsa::seq::Seq`
   = note: required because it appears within the type `std::option::Option<alsa::seq::Seq>`
   = note: required because it appears within the type `midir::backend::alsa::MidiOutput`
   = note: required because it appears within the type `midir::MidiOutput`
   = note: required because it appears within the type `midir::ConnectError<midir::MidiOutput>`

error[E0277]: `std::cell::Cell<bool>` cannot be shared between threads safely
  --> tests/virtual.rs:31:96
   |
11 | fn is_sync<T: Sync>(t: T) -> ! { panic!() }
   |    -------    ---- required by this bound in `is_sync`
...
31 |     let mut conn_out = match midi_out.connect(&new_port, "midir-test") { Ok(c) => c, Err(e) => is_sync(e) };
   |                                                                                                ^^^^^^^ `std::cell::Cell<bool>` cannot be shared between threads safely
   |
   = help: within `midir::ConnectError<midir::MidiOutput>`, the trait `std::marker::Sync` is not implemented for `std::cell::Cell<bool>`
   = note: required because it appears within the type `alsa::seq::Seq`
   = note: required because it appears within the type `std::option::Option<alsa::seq::Seq>`
   = note: required because it appears within the type `midir::backend::alsa::MidiOutput`
   = note: required because it appears within the type `midir::MidiOutput`
   = note: required because it appears within the type `midir::ConnectError<midir::MidiOutput>`

error: aborting due to 2 previous errors

I guess the intention with these error types is that connect consumes the original MidiInput/MidiOutput, but logically only does so if it succeeds, so including it in the error provides a means of getting it back on failure. That makes sense, but it does lead to this kind of papercut.

This can be worked around by doing something like ConnectError::new(e.kind(), ()), or converting the error to a string immediately, but it's a bit awkward.

The best idea off the top of my head would be to offer an API for disregarding the "inner" value in these errors, which would streamline the workaround a bit. But maybe there's a cleaner solution.

This really is just a papercut in the API, so it's not a big deal. But it's a bit non-obvious and maybe even non-intentional, so I figured I'd raise it here.

Boddlnagg

Boddlnagg

0

The WASM/Web MIDI backend (#47) disabled some tests that ensure Send is implemented for API structures, because those parts of the Web MIDI API only work on the main (browser UI) thread.

Eventually there should be a way to use midir with the Web MIDI API from multiple threads (i.e. web workers), but it's not clear yet how exactly this is expected to work.

MaulingMonkey

MaulingMonkey

1

Web MIDI support is made awkward in a couple of places by the browser's use of async/deferred callbacks:

  • Getting input/output device lists (need to request access first)
  • Opening/closing devices

Futures should, at least in theory, keep the API relatively sane (allowing you to write async code or to simply .wait() in traditional sync code)

The wasm_bindgen_futures crate provides JsFuture, which looks like it should make this quite straightforward.

chris-zen

chris-zen

question
21

Hi,

I was about to use midir, but realised of a missing feature that it is very important, the ability to specify the timestamp in the future when the MIDI data has to be sent (see this). I think this is specially important when working with audio and MIDI in sync and need the maximum precision possible (having to implement the scheduling of MIDI events myself with a thread is not an option, as this would lead to sync problems for sure).

I was wondering if you were considering to add this feature at some point (if it is really possible to find a common model for timestamps and synchronisation across platforms).

kangalioo

kangalioo

enhancement
18

The documentation states that the connection to the Midi device is kept open as long as the MidiInputConnection is kept alive. Hence the callback shouldn't be needed anymore once the corresponding MidiInputConnection is dropped. When the callback must only live as long as the MidiInputConnection, the 'static lifetime doesn't make sense. Have I misunderstood something?

Boscop

Boscop

11

How to identify when a midi input device got disconnected? When I open the ports as described here. Is it possible to check the MidiInputConnection if the device was disconnected? My use case is, I want auto reconnect every few seconds if a midi device was disconnected. I'm already successfully auto reconnecting output devices because they will give a SendError on send() if they are disconnected, but how to detect it for input devices? (on windows)

Boddlnagg

Boddlnagg

enhancement
1

This is a follow-up to #32. See the WebMIDI spec for a neat description of a "persistent port ID" (https://www.w3.org/TR/webmidi/#attributes-1):

This can be used by developers to remember ports the user has chosen for their application. The User Agent MUST ensure that the id is unique to only that port. The User Agent SHOULD ensure that the id is maintained across instances of the application - e.g., when the system is rebooted - and when a device is removed from the system. Applications may want to cache these ids locally to re-create a MIDI setup. Some systems may not support completely unique persistent identifiers; in such cases, it will be more challenging to maintain identifiers when another interface is added or removed from the system. (This might throw off the index of the requested port.) It is expected that the system will do the best it can to match a port across instances of the MIDI API: for example, an implementation may opaquely use some form of hash of the port interface manufacturer, name and index as the id, so that a reference to that port id is likely to match the port when plugged in. Applications may use the comparison of id of MIDIPorts to test for equality.

This implies that we support Eq and Hash, and maybe even serde's serialization traits (with an optional feature).

It is still unclear whether the persistent ID should replace or be added on top of the non-persistent ID implemented in #32. Because the IDs from #32 are opaque, they can be changed internally as needed.

Boscop

Boscop

question
9

The user data passed to MidiInput::connect() is not necessary because anything that the closure wants to reference can be captured. (It's only necessary in the underlying C lib because it doesn't have closures.) So user_data can be entirely removed from HandlerData, right?

(I always pass () for user data in MidiInput::connect() anyway, and capture what I need.)

Boddlnagg

Boddlnagg

3

Although related to #6, (semi-automatic) unit tests should be added regardless of CI. Some possibilities include (for all backends):

  • Sending and receiving very long (> 1 KB) sysex messages
  • What happens when a device is plugged out while listening for input or sending output?
  • What happens when something blocks the callback thread and we're trying to close the connection?
Boddlnagg

Boddlnagg

0

Since our backend implementations are mostly ported from RtMidi, some of the issues there might be relevant to midir as well.

Boddlnagg

Boddlnagg

help wanted
4

E.g. compile with support for both ALSA and JACK, and give the application the ability to dynamically select the backend. It is not clear how this interacts with the jack feature-flag.

Information - Updated Sep 30, 2021

Stars: 251
Forks: 39
Issues: 26

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